Monday, June 20, 2016

EPITAPH FOR 14 GURKHAS - Canada's courageous leader condemns a "cowardly attack" in Kabul

Ah yes, Afghanistan.  The war we lost years ago, but still pretend to care about.   We Canadians do TOKENISM really well. Everything about our efforts in A-Stan reeks of tokenism. Take for example Justin Trudeau's response this morning to the most recent Kabul carnage - the murder of 14 Gurkha's of the Canadian Embassy security force:  

Justin Tweeted: "Today's attack on security workers in Kabul is appalling and cowardly. Our thoughts are with the victims as we stand with the Afghan people."

Justin is wrong of course. He often is. The weekend attack wasn't cowardly at all but it was certainly cunning. Kabul is one of the most locked-down cities in any war zone, and a Taliban Kamikaze who manages to strike a military target inside that city has balls the size of B.C. apples.   The attack on our Embassy security personnel was precise and extremely lethal.  Latest word from Kabul is that several team-mates on staff are seriously thinking of quitting and going home. They should. Unemployment in earthquake ravaged Nepal, is preferable to taking a salvo of steel pellets from the next suicide bomber. Canada has set these brave men up to be killed, and the fourteen families deserve huge financial compensation.

14 murdered Gurkhas - Justin Trudeau Tweets

Packed like Tourists in a Mini-bus
The Ambassador herself, Ms. Deborah Lyons, didn''t go anywhere in Kabul unless her fanny was riding above armour plate and she was waving to the Afghan children through bullet-proof glass.  Why then would we ever cheap-out and transport the Canadian embassy security crews in rickety tour buses?  The very idea is grotesque and SHAMEFUL.  We would never put Canadian troops or RCMP officers at such risk, so which parsimonious Ottawa bureaucrat gave the O.K. to transport out Gurkha guard force  in vehicles that have the bullet resistance of a Coca-Cola can?

Kabul Suicide bombing, June 20, 2016

Look closely at these photos.   A few hours ago the punctured bodies of 14 Gurkha security officers (12 Nepalese  and 2 Indian) were pulled from those seats. Kabul firemen broke the windows with pick axes to  ease the extraction of dead and wounded.  Those who survived have pellet wounds to the head.  The Taliban suicide bomber was wearing a carefully manufactured explosive belt that rammed a high-velocity pattern through the windshield and into the faces of the passengers.  
     If our Gurkha security personnel had been riding in an armoured vehicle, not a single man would have been killed by that type of explosive belt.  So why weren't they?

suicide bomber - Canadian Embassy Kabul

I draw your attention, once again, to the photo evidence.  Not a single hole in the aluminum body of the bus. Not even a flat tire. The entire dispersion pattern is through the front windshield.  How much do you bet that the suicide bomber stepped directly in front of the bus, and that the passengers were craning their necks to look at him? In that frozen moment in time, most of those killed probably understood they were staring at death.  These "security workers" as Trudeau so stupidly labeled them, were all ex-military, with years of experience in war zones. All are veterans of the British, Indian or Nepalese Armies. These  were all employed by SABRE INTERNATIONAL, the private security company that currently holds the contract for defending the Canadian Embassy from Taliban insurgents. The requirements for Guard Force employment are six years of military or police service, of which two years must have been in "Iraq, Afghanistan or other high threat location". All of that professional training and experience for US$1200 per month. A really sweet deal for us, eh?

suicide bombing Kabul - 14 dead in mini-bus

Our Ambassador  on Vacation  - 
The Gurkhas were the Target 

The Canadian Embassy in Kabul is a very hard target, and it would be near impossible for the Taliban to take it out.  There are said to be 147 Nepali's on the payroll, and always a few dozen on home leave.  That leaves a total of 82 Gurkhas on the guard force, divided between two teams, working in three shifts. There are never less than twenty on the property. At the slightest sign of trouble the Ambassador is whisked into a self-contained bunker, and the gunships would be overhead before the assault team could breach the door.  But that wasn't the point.  The Ambassador, Deborah Lyons, is actually on vacation.  The Trudeau government has reassigned her to Israel, and she packed her green scarves away.  The Tweet attributed to her, earlier today, and from various Ottawa luminaries, is actually staff work. The Gurkhas are now responsible for guarding all the major embassies in Kabul, and the Taliban is sending a potent message.  So potent in fact, that some of the Gurkhas are sure to buckle, especially if cheapskate employers like Canada, persist in sending them  back to barracks each day in tour coaches.  

Deborah Lyons - Canadian Ambassador to Afghanistan

The Canadian Government 
Squandered 14 Good Men
As a Canadian, I am sincerely ashamed that we set these men up for a brutal and needless death.  In fact it is my fervent wish that a Toronto or Vancouver law firm will take up the case of their grieving families, and negotiate a meaningful settlement... say a million dollars per family.  I didn't vote for Justin but I'd vote "Yes" for compensating Canada's most loyal employees in Kabul. Describing the dead men as part off the Embassy "family" (as was attributed to Ms. Lyons) is meaningless horse shit. At minimum she should be required to fly to Nepal to attend the funerals, and deliver the first compensation cheques to the grieving families.  

Updated- June 22 - Toll is now 15 Dead Security Guards. 
Canadian Embassy Kabul - Death Toll is now 15

Gurkha hero in Afghanistan terror war

The Gurkhas are of course a legendary breed of fighting men, and there is no need for me to rehash their battlefield accomplishments here. This single Internet scrape ("A one-man army") is illustrative of Gurkha valour - specifically as it pertains to Afghanistan.   

I did search today for some statement from the security contractor,  SABRE INTERNATIONAL, but did not find one.  Let us all hope that Ottawa, and SABRE, will now budget for some armoured transport for the remaining members of our Embassy security force.   I suppose buckets of hot blood may not be sufficient to effect change.  It will be up to Her Majesty's Official Opposition, supported by a few Ottawa journalists, to turn this ugly incident into a political issue.  Actually, I don't believe many Canadians will give a shit about dead Gurkhas, but Trudeau  has to because more will die unless we learn from this tragic blunder.     

Sabre International - Employment requirements, Ex military staff

This story is going to disappear extremely fast simply because there are no photographs of the dead.  Canadian brains in the 21st Century don't register words. They only respond to images.  Unfortunately for the Gurkhas, the Kabul security forces were EXTREMELY EFFICIENT at the blast site, and the media cowed.  If  photos were taken of the carnage, not a single news agency has released any. All evidence of the gore was hosed away within a few hours, and the bus itself was secured in a compound with high walls. 

I close with an extract from a column in the TORONTO STAR today (June 20/16)

Gurkha rights - Canadian responsibility

NEPALI M.P. slams Canadian "negligence"... as he should.

Family members of 14 Guards slain enroute to Canadian Embassy


AFTERMATH - 12 returned to Nepal, 2 to India

Canadian Embassy Afghanistan - coffins of 14 murdered Gurkha guards

Nepal Airlines today returned the bodies of twelve Gurkha guards to their grieving families. The dead, all employed as security at the Canadian Embassy in Kabul,  were slain by a Taliban guerrilla who detonated a suicide vest in their faces.  In addition to the dead, 24  Nepalese from our Embassy guard force returned on the Nepal Airlines flight.

Grieving family members of Nepalese personnel killed in Afghanistan

A widow is comforted at the ceremony.  Each of the 12 coffins returned from Kabul was labeled (by the Kabul Police Forensic Lab)with a colour enlargement from their Nepal passport.  The coffins were transported from the airport to the gravesite in Nepal Army trucks.  All of the Canadian Embassy guards are ex-soldiers and entitled to full military honours.

Military funeral (June 21, 2016) for Gurkha guards slain enroute to Canadian Embassy Kabul

If these men were White Canadians, employed by our Embassy in Kabul, this service would be broadcast live on all television networks.  This IS a Canadian event, and we shouldn't turn our face away. As well, we must not turn our backs on these grieving families.

BANG !  Our Embassy loses Gurkha Guards

Nepal Government pulls security guards from Canadian Embassy, Kabul

KATHMANDU, June 23: Following the Afghanistan bomb attack which killed 13 Nepali citizens, the government has imposed a ban on employment for Nepali workers in the four conflict-ravaged countries of Afghanistan, Syria, Libya and Iraq.
A cabinet meeting held at Baluwatar Thursday decided not to issue any kind of work permit to Nepali nationals in any of the four countries for the time being.
"Until the government takes another decision on the matter, Nepali workers will not be allowed to work in the four countries," Minister for Information and Communications Sher Dhan Rai said.
Likewise, the cabinet has decided to immediately hold talks with the Afghanistan government to seek guarantees for the security of Nepali workers still in that country.
"The meeting has also decided to make necessary arrangements to bring back Nepali nationals from Afghanistan who want to return home in the wake of the bomb attack," said Minister Rai.
According to Tourism Minister Ananda Pokharel, over 20,000 Nepalis may be working in Afghanistan both legally and illegally. Government records show that it has issued permits to over 8,889 Nepalis to work as security guards in Afghanistan.
"The government has also decided to ask the Afghanistan government to immediately investigate the attack and make the details public," said Minister Rai, who is the spokesperson of the government.
Likewise, the government has decided to ask the Canadian government for its official statement about the attack. The Canadian government has not issued any statement so far.
As many as 24 Nepalis, who returned to Nepal on Thursday along with the bodies of 12 of those killed in the attack, said the embassy had intelligence reports about the attack but did not caution them. As many as 147 Nepali security guards were providing security at the Canadian embassy in Kabul.
"The cabinet meeting also decided to provide Rs 1 million each to the families of the 13 Nepalis killed in the attack," Minister Rai said, adding that the government will cover the medical expense of six other Nepalis, who were injured in the attack. The injured are currently undergoing medical treatment at a hospital in India.
Ronald J. Jack
Burnaby, B.C.

Thursday, May 5, 2016

Nineteen Eighty-four - The Reader's Digest version (Really!)

1984 - George Orwell. Covers displayed by a Google search

Ronald J. Jack
May 5, 2016

I have probably been guiding students through the 300-plus pages of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four far longer than is good for me,  but the job is not yet done. "1984" grows more influential each year, and it simply cannot be dispensed with.  Once young adults are convinced of its importance as a literary work, and its significance to modern political criticism, they commit to it, and finish the reading. However, too many students simply cannot read, or refuse to try. Here in British Columbia the novel is still in the Curriculum, but I know of teachers who simply show the movie, thus avoiding the obvious frustrations.  

Now and then I have caught myself giving up on a complainer, "Look, if I had a Reader's Digest edition I would give it to you!"  Frustration often peaks when we hit "Goldstein's book", or to be more precise,  "THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF OLIGARCHICAL COLLECTIVISM".

Image my surprise, and delight, to learn that there really was a Reader's Digest edition of Nineteen Eighty-four.  On Tuesday I encountered an old and very yellowed anthology, printed in postwar England. I paid my Loonie and carried home my prize.  As you will see for yourself, an un-named wordsmith had rendered the 312 page Orwell novel to a scant 29 pages!!!  Of course the irony is as thick as a mattress, given that very brutal process is the subject of the novel.  Winston Smith, a skilled employee of the Ministry of Truth,  spends his days destroying printed texts and condemned images, as well as rewriting other men's prose.

This Reader's Digest novel "condensation" is now 67 years old. Long out of print, it has no commercial value whatever.  And yet I did promise several students, if I had a copy...   So, as a gift to lazy students worldwide, I hereunder present you the scanned pages of George Orwell, his masterpiece gutted and trimmed as no literary work should ever be rendered. 

George Orwell's Literary Estate - the 2004 Sunday Times investigation

As an additional service, I would also point readers in the direction of a fascinating investigation into the fate of Eric Blair's literary estate.  Written by Tim Carroll and originally published by the SUNDAY TIMES in 2004, the scanned pages of the article "A WRITER WRONGED" can be read on the website called ORWELL TODAY.  The magazine cuttings are greatly reduced from the original page size, so I have enhanced them a bit,  and share them again here.

Orwell - A Writer Wronged, by Tim Carroll (2004)

Orwell - A Writer Wronged, by Tim Carroll (2004)

The READER'S DIGEST version (Sept. 1949)

1984 by George Orwell - the Reader's Digest 1949, Introduction

1984 - The Reader's Digest version, 29 pages long

1984 - The READER'S DIGEST condensation - 29 pages

Nineteen Eighty-four, The READER'S DIGEST version, 29 pages

Nineteen Eighty-four, George Orwell, READER'S DIGEST, 1949

1984 - Official trailer on YOUTUBE, high school student's posted comment

This is a screen grab from the DVD edition of NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR.  I checked for the official movie trailer on YOUTUBE today, and read a few of the posted comments. I don't know where Amy Cardenas is living, but I would believe Vancouver, Canada. Her experience matches what I have observed.

Amy Cardenas - the apple who makes a difference

George Orwell - 1984, READER'S DIGEST condensed book, 1949

1984b- by George Orwell, The Reader's Digest version = 29 pages

Nineteen Eighty-four by George Orwell, First edition, London 1949
Book collectors, (and I am one) often favour one edition of a novel over all others.  I have Nineteen Eighty-four in several editions as well as audio and video products,  but I suppose I do prefer the Penguin paperback edition that I encountered in high school English class.  The first London edition (above) had a jacket designed by Michael Kennard. He superimposed the novels title over the numeral "1984".   Students of today's FACEBOOK - TWITTER generation (who are easily bored by vocabulary) often consider spelling out the year date to be a fussy pretence, even after reading the opening line: "It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen." By the end of the novel they are receptive to Orwell's ideas about language as employed by totalitarian authority.

Friday, April 1, 2016

Margaret Trudeau's Bum

Canadian Folk Culture images selected from 
the RUNAGATES CLUB digital archives,

by  Ronald J. Jack

Most Canadians of middle-age (my age) have seen photographs of Margaret Trudeau's... "bum".  The word bum is of course, a euphemism.  Canadian slang for what Margaret flashed to the paparazzi is her "beaver", although folks today are more direct.

So why did Maggie's "bum" become a political story back in 1979?  

Margaret Trudeau campaign button - 1979 or 1980 Federal election

Pierre Elliott Trudeau resigned his party leadership following its defeat in the 1979 Federal Election.  The LIBERAL PARTY was thrown into chaos and could not find a new leader.  The pitiful TORY government under Joe Clark collapsed after only a few months, and Trudeau rushed back  to lead his party in a crushing defeat of the CONSERVATIVES.

I was at university during both Federal elections and I considered both federal parties archaic and corrupt.  During the 1980 Canadian Federal Election, though busy with my studies,  I was asked to work as campaign manager for the LIBERTARIAN candidate in Fredericton, N.B.  We didn't have a pot to piss in,  no campaign buttons or lawn signs, but we offered an alternative to voters in the UNB campus area.  I was aware that Trudeau's wife had disgraced herself in New York, but I had not seen what many Canadians had seen - the photographs in HIGH SOCIETY magazine.

Margaret Trudeau - cover of HIGH SOCIETY, September 1979

In 1979 Margaret Trudeau was separated from her husband, promoting her memoirs,  and trying to establish herself as a serious career woman. Trading on her fame as the wife of Canada's "playboy" prime minister,  she spent too much time in New York nightclubs, including STUDIO 54,  where she mixed with bigger egos and competed for attention. Her chosen stratagem was to deliberately hitch up her skirt and expose herself to photographers.  

HIGH SOCIETY magazine (two million copy circulation in 1979) bought a few photos and decided to give Mrs. Trudeau the cover.  In August of 1979 Canadians were salivating to get their hands on a copy. When a Canadian reporter questioned the magazine's motives, the editor responded: "She's a public figure. If she doesn't want this kind of attention, then I think she should keep her panties on."

Margaret Trudeau poses without panties, New York 1979

The insinuation had always been that the pussy photos had damaged the Liberals, but I don't think that was true.  In the region of Canada I come from, the Maritime Provinces, you needed few excuses to denigrate your political opponent.  I do recall hollow comments at the time like, "If he can't control his wife, how can he run the country?"  Any honest critic had to admit the truth - that Pierre Trudeau was a master tactician,  and he would continue Lord it over Canada as long as it pleased him. 

I was not one of those mocking the Emperor for his wife's indecent exposure,  because at the time I just didn't think Margaret Trudeau was interesting in any respect.  And I was far too serious in my studies to think of  buying a trashy magazine to snicker over.

Margaret Trudeau at STUDIO 54 - exposing her vagina to cameras

But something odd happened.  In the summer of 1984 I was invited to travel to Taiwan to join with representatives from twenty-four countries  on a fact-finding tour. We were introduced to dozens of top business and political leaders, and toured everything of interest in the country including military bases.  As the sole delegate representing Canada, I was approached by a radio reporter from South African Broadcasting who was doing a story on the cultural exchange.  I just couldn't fathom  his initial question.  A full five years after the Margaret Trudeau photo-scandal, a reporter wanted me to record what Canadians thought about her behaviour.  Now, Maggie's hairy monkey hadn't meant a thing to me, but I had to respond with something worthy of his recording tape. But I'm sure I disappointed him.

I found interesting employment in Taiwan and stayed for a few years, but on return to Canada I did eventually encounter the infamous edition of HIGH SOCIETY.  The shots of Maggie's pudenda are not so hot, but they are reflective of where society was already headed.  Margaret's mania was only limited by technology.  Had she a cellphone back in 1979,  Mrs. Trudeau would have taken her own crotch-shots and posted them all over Social Media.  Showing your body to the world is a rather obligatory stunt among the truly desperate in 2016.  It was sad then, and it is boring today.

Margaret Trudeau - posing in a bathing suit, 1979

It might amaze a few readers to know that the assorted Trudeau scandals have been studied by serious  scholars, including Canadian folklorists.  One research paper I have at hand is a collection of Trudeauisms, including satire songs and jokes. Two of the more amusing are:

Q:  What has the most fingerprints - the RCMP,  CIA  or MTA?
A:  MTA - Margaret Trudeau's ass.

Q:  What do Margaret Trudeau and Maureen McTeer have in common?
A:  They both like to blow a little dope? 

[Ms. McTeer was P.M. Joe Clark's wife.   Margaret Trudeau was widely known to be an addictive pot smoker.  She passed that pleasure on to her son Justin.]

"MARGARET" - satire recorded by Toronto disc jockey Frank Proctor
D-jay Frank Proctor recorded the satire "MARGARET" in 1977,
but it got banned from Canadian radio after a few weeks. The
song predated Maggie's display of pudenda by two years.
The recording is on YOUTUBE.  Just jump to MARGARET.

WIKIPEDIA articles often discuss a given events "Cultural Impact", or how often it is referenced  or parodied in the Popular Culture. There is certainly other Trudeau trash besides the campaign button I could share here in the Blog, but perhaps the most interesting referent is a printed album jacket produced in Vancouver in 1979.  It is for the punk rock band "D.O.A."  who recorded a record entitled "TRIUMPH OF THE IGNOROIDS".  The first pressing off the record was 1000 copies and it sold out instantly... perhaps a testament to the qualities of the music, or maybe because buyers sensed that a shot of Margaret Trudeau's hairy snatch might amuse their friends.

D.O.A. - Vancouver punk band -  1979 Margaret Trudeau album cover

Trudeau went into deep psycho-therapy and claimed to have given up the recreational drugs.  But there is is some evidence that she never managed to pull herself together.  All through her life she continued to act weird, especially when anyone pointed a camera at her.

Margaret Trudeau exposes her naked son  Kyle to camera, Ottawa 1979

Following the election of another Trudeau in 2015,  CBC meat puppets and journal fawned over the Trudeau's like they were witnessing the second coming of "Camelot". One of the more obnoxious suggestions came from a very senior reporter - Neil MacDonald, who wrote a column "Let's give Margaret Trudeau the credit she deserves".  If at some point in life I had been lobotomized, I would be his man.  The myth making was well and truly underway.  Today's blog is for those Canadians who value historical memory. I doubt any of this material is preserved in the collection of our National Archives in Ottawa.

Tuesday, January 26, 2016

Classic VOLVO Advertising - Mocking Planned Obsolesence Didn't Defeat It

Classic VOLVO ad - Your symbol has just lost its status

This VOLVO advertisement from the 1960s is more
relevant than ever.  Our expensive products are made
redundant and valueless at a very alarming rate.

Classic VOLVO ADS - A Gallery of Greats
- Ronald J. Jack

All of us, I think, are annoyed by the constant failure of critical components in our household appliances, bathroom fixtures, consumer electronics and so much more. When they break or wear out, we are faced with disposing of the whole unit and buying a replacement. The alternative is living in a graveyard of failed technology. I recall going through eight drip coffee-makers (in every case a heating element failure) before switching to a simple French Press.  I burned through ten desktop laser printers before finding one that could  survive 24 months of light usage (a Brother DCP) and I  suffered the existence of a dozen pole lamps (all made in China, and priced from $50 to $300) fitted with extremely shoddy dial switches, before learning my lesson. Now I simply pull the plugs from the wall and NEVER reach for the damned switches.  

Today I watched a roofing crew rip off and replace my neighbours entire roof, because of a reported leak. The roof was just two years old. They quickly carted away the incriminating evidence - a truck load of new asphalt shingles and 20 sheets of new plywood sheathing. Insane waste. A "rip off" it was.

So what if the products we buy passed a C.S.A. bench test? So many gadgets are designed to fail we take it for granted that nothing we own is permanent.  Even if it was "Warranted"  most of the time it is is easier to junk the item than search for a receipt. Last week I acquired a used product that is 51 years old, cost  60 cents when new, and shows no sign of wearing out.  It is a copy of THE WASTE MAKERS, written by social critic Vance Packard. In his time, at the beginning of the Space Age, there was plenty of debate about the growing dependence of the U.S. economy on planned obsolescence, and the "ethics" of engineers who designed products that would fail on a schedule. At the time the book was published the jury was out, discussing the overwhelming evidence of industry building products that were programmed to fail. We now know the manufacturers won the case. Consumers lost and had to pay all costs. We are still paying.

Packard has chapters on the American automotive industry, and they are of course long out-of-date. Yet one constant remains - the drive to convince us that the cars we own are less desirable than new models in dealer showrooms. It is a pretty good guess that every copy-writer in the advertising industry read Packard's book, because industry counter-measures were not long in coming.

THE WASTE MAKERS - best=selling book by Vance Packard

Truth as a Counter-Measure
For a twenty year period, from about 1966 to 1986, the Swedish automobile manufacturer VOLVO,  ridiculed "planned obsolescence" in it marketing campaigns. You sometimes encounter their ads if you riffle through the pages of old magazines, and I have collected eight of them here. I hope you enjoy them.  VOLVO still employs very effective advertising, but the theme is different.

Classic VOLVO advertisement. "This is the eleven year car."
The VOLVO ad that really started it all:
"This is the eleven year car." [1966]

Classic VOLVO ad. "If you really want to impress someone..."
A companion VOLVO ad in 1966: "If you really want to
impress someone with your car, tell him it's paid for."

The point was made, but it got more interesting. "THE PAPER CAR"  With reference to BOTH  "planned obsolescence" and the reality of a new, "throw-away society"  the wasteful consumer became an accomplice of industry.

Classic VOLVO advertising 1967  - THE PAPER CAR

This VOLVO ad was the most forceful and blatant on the subject of
planned obsolescence and wasteful consumerism. [THE PAPER CAR! 1967]

Pop culture of the 1960s and 1970s was filled with
references to "The System"and social conformity.

In  1979 the campaign matured and VOLVO could literally harvest satisfied customers. Thirteen years had elapsed  and many of those 1966 sedans were still on the road.

Classic VOLVO advertising.  "13 years ago I bought this VOLVO because"
VOLVO ad 1979 - "13 Years Ago I Bought This Volvo
Because It Was Advertised As The 11 Year Car."

Note that the customer the advertisement featured was an historian. An expert on aboriginal art and culture. "13 years ago, William Stiles, an expert in American Indian history and artifacts, discover the treasure you see here: a 1966 Volvo."  How cool was that?  Yes, there really was a William Stiles, and there is a Canadian connection.  Stiles is featured on the SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BLOG (Here).  After scoring points by showcasing an expert on well-made artifacts, the folks who ran the VOLVO ad campaign came up with another expert - a psychiatrist.

Classic VOLVO ad, 1980 "Anyone Who's Thinking of Spending $24,000"
In 1980, ad copy that is both clever and amusing:
"Anyone Who's Thinking of Spending $24,000 For A
Luxury Car Should Talk To A Psychiatrist."

In the Ad copy the psychiatrist is quoted: "In my opinion the individual buying this car would have a strong, unsuppressed need to get his or her money's worth. He or she would probably also have a strong enough self-image not to need a blatant status symbol."  Ouch!  That still hurts, 36 years later.

Classic VOLVO advertising - 1986 For Those Whose Values Haven't Changed

And then it was 1986.  VOLVO customers had worked hard and they had prospered. Another generation of buyers was prowling the car lots,  and certainly were influenced by clever advertising.  We end our gallery with this great display ad that certainly must have struck a chord with many satisfied drivers:  "The Car For People Whose Means Have Changed But Whose Values Haven't."  You are either that sort of person, or you are not.

I have never owned or even driven a VOLVO, but there are other quality vehicles on the roads.